Oxandrolone evolutionary

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [79] [80] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [79] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [81] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [82] [83] [84] [85] [86]

It is also suggested that there is an interaction between hormone levels and eating at different points in the female menstrual cycle . Research has predicted increased emotional eating during hormonal flux, which is characterized by high progesterone and estradiol levels that occur during the mid- luteal phase . It is hypothesized that these changes occur due to brain changes across the menstrual cycle that are likely a genomic effect of hormones. These effects produce menstrual cycle changes, which result in hormone release leading to behavioral changes, notably binge and emotional eating. These occur especially prominently among women who are genetically vulnerable to binge eating phenotypes. [51]

THANK YOU!! I fucking irks me to no end when I see someone spewing off nostalgic vitriol about how the Edwardian era and the 1950s was some sort of heaven on earth for those of the penis-posessing variety. IT WAS NOT. In fact it was far from it. Want to talk about gender roles? How about the MALE gender roles. Men were regulated to cannon fodder who were obligated to lay down their lives in the trenches of France and Belgium during WW1 because their respective European emperors told them to because of a bitchfest that was simmering with the other European emperors. Ditto for the Vietnam war 50 years later. And a few years earlier they were obligated to freeze to death in the Atlantic ocean as the Titanic sank under them because the life of a man was apparently less valuble than that of a woman or child.

Oxandrolone evolutionary

oxandrolone evolutionary

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